More and more motor-car enthusiasts are showing interest in electric vehicles, practical, reliable, and easy to exploit. Despite some undeniable advantages, the issue of charging such vehicles does not lose its relevance. Let’s talk about the loading classes for cars that operate on electricity, as well as the difference in loading speed.
Chargers’ types for electric vehicles
All electric cars’ chargers can be classified into three large groups – the first, second, and third levels.
First-level loading is similar to a classic smartphone charge. This tool plugs into any outlet (110-120 volts, 6-8 amps).
Second-level devices require a 220-240 volt outlet and no more than 30 amps AC. Vehicles with this class of charging absorb 6-30 amps. These solutions are the most common and in demand.
The third-level devices feature massive “refrigerators” mounted along roads, at gas stations, in public locations, and in offices. Technologically, they are quite complex (designed for 100-150 kilowatts, 480 volts, and hundreds of amperes). They are sometimes referred to as DC chargers with a constant current. It will take you from 10 minutes to half an hour to fully charge the vehicle.
Second-level chargers’ structure
Mentioned loadings are the most popular and are often applied in offices (cyberswitching CSE1 is its vivid example), schools, and supermarkets’ parking lots. What does the filling of such equipment look like? It usually contains:
- GFCI or power conversion board with built-in protection.
- The vehicle communication control board with an analog interface (pilot signal included).
- Communication board with a separate Wi-Fi modem or cable.
Devices of the second level are convenient and reliable for use in public locations, workplaces, and other metropolis objects. Due to the specifics of the places of utilize, they have additional built-in protection to restrict access and convenient screens for communicating with users. Sometimes there is a controller integrated into the overall building management system.
The difference between fast, accelerated, and high-speed charging
Classic charging stations utilize alternating current. Considering a single-phase network, the maximum voltage will reach 220V, and the power will not exceed 7.4 kW. These parameters are too modest for vehicles with a range of at least 200 km. Using such fast solutions, you will have to charge the car all night, or at least 5 hours during the daytime.
Devices that provide accelerated loading are equipped with a 380V power supply. Also, you can charge a car many times faster. With a current equivalent to single-phase sockets of 16A, the device’s power increases to 10.5 kW (43.5 kW maximum). In this case, the battery filling time is no more than 6 hours, even for vehicles with an impressive power reserve. It’s a classic fast-track tool, ideal when a driver has just a couple of hours to recharge.
A speedy solution can be implemented via direct current. For this purpose, engineers apply special batteries fixed at loading stations. The workplace ev charging is such equipment’s prime example. The process is accelerated as much as possible mainly due to the absence of the need to convert the alternating current of the mains into the direct current of the car battery. The high-speed format allows you to fill the vehicle with energy extremely quickly – 30-40 minutes, instead of 10 or even 5 hours provided by fast and accelerated tools.
The speedy solution also has some weak sides that every driver should be aware of. You will not be able to fill the entire battery with energy at maximum speed (80% only, later the process will slow down to normal values). Another disadvantage lies in the high maintenance cost and the short service life of the rechargeable battery. Experts recommend using this equipment type not on an ongoing basis, but strictly periodically.
All loading classes for electric vehicles are worthy of drivers’ attention. When choosing between fast, accelerated, and speedy solutions, weigh all the pros and cons, assess the situation, and apply their technical capabilities rationally. The equipment type should be changed periodically to ensure the battery’s long operating life.